West Coast Spine Restoration Center’s Research


1. Gatchel, R.J. & Kishino, N.D. Psychological Strategies for Chronic Pain Management. In H.H. Herkowitz, S. Garfin,F.J. Elismon & G.R. Bell (Eds.), Rothman-Simeone The Spine, 5th Ed. Philadelphia Elsevier. 2004

2. Garofalo, J.P., Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Strizak, A.M. An Early Screening and Intervention Approach for Acute Low Back Pain Disability. In I.Z. Schultz & R.J. Gatchel (Eds.), Handbook of Complex Occupational Disability Claims: Early Risk Identification, Intervention and Prevention. New York: Springer, 2005.

3. Gatchel, R.J., Lou, L. & Kishino, N.D. Concepts of Multidisciplinary Pain Management. In M.V. Boswell & B.E. Cole (Eds.), Weiner’s Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians, 7th Edition. Sonora CA: CRC Press, 2006.

4. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Pain Patients: Implications for Causality in Pain. In G. Young, A. Kane & K. Nicholson (Eds.) Psychological Knowledge and Evidence in Court: PTSD Pain and TBI. New York: Springer, 2006.

5. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Strizak, A. The Importance of Outcome Assessment in Orthopaedics: An Overview. In J. Spivak & P. Connolly (Eds.), Orthopaedic Knowledge Update: Spine, 3rd Edition. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2006.

6. Gatchel, R.J., Noe, C., Kishino, N.D. “Carving-out” Services from Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Management Programs: Negative Impact on Therapeutic Efficacy. In M.E. Schatman & A. Campbell (Eds.), Chronic Pain Management: Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Program Development. New York: Informa HealthCare, 2007.

7. Gatchel, R.J. Theodore, B.R., Kishino, N.D. Treatment of Chronic Pain Consequent to Motor Vehicle Collisions. In M.P. Duckworth, I. Iezzi & W.T. O’Donohue (Eds.), Motor Vehicle Collisions: Medical, Psychosocial and Legal Consequences. New York: Elsevier, 2008.

8. Gatchel, R.J. & Kishino, N.D. Chronic Pain, Impairment and Disability. In A. Rice, R. Howard, D. Justins, C. Miaskowski & T. Newton-Johns (Eds.), Textbook of Clinical Pain Management, 2nd Edition. London: Hodder Arnold Publishers, 2008.

9. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D., Theodore, B. & Noe, C. Pain and Learning. In J.C. Ballantyne, J.P. Rathmell & S.M. Fishman (Eds.), Bonica’s Management of Pain, 4th Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

10. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. Pain, Musculoskeletal Injuries and Return-to-Work. In L. Tetrick & J. Quick (Eds.) Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology, 2nd Edition Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press, 2010.

11. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. Managing Chronic Pain. In Thomas, J.C. & Hersen, M. (Eds.). Handbook of Clinical Psychology Competencies. New York: Springer, 2010.

12. Gatchel , R.J. , Kishino, N.D. The Biopsychosocial Perspective of Pain and Emotion. In G. MacDonald & L., Jensen-Campbell (Eds.), Social Pain: Neuropsychological and Health


Implications of Loss and Exclusion. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press, 2011.

13. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. Psychosocial Considerations in Spinal Disorders. In R. Rao & M. Smuck (Eds.), Orthopedic Knowledge Update: Spine 4, Chicago: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2012.

14. Gatchel, R.J., & Kishino, N.D. Conceptual Approaches to Occupational Health and Wellness: An Overview. In R.J. Gatchel & I. Schultz (Eds.) Handbook of Occupational Health and Wellness: New York: Springer, 2012.

15. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Strizak, A. Occupational Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability Disorders: An Overview. In R.J. Gatchel & I.Z. Schultz (Eds.), Handbook of Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability Disorders in the Workplace. New York: Springer. 2014.

16. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Schultz, I.Z. Early Intervention to Prevent the Development of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability Disorders. In R.J. Gatchel & I.Z. Schultz (Eds.), Handbook of Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability Disorders in the Workplace, New York: Springer, 2014.

17. Gatchel, R.J., Landers, N. R., Robert, C. R., Hulla, R., & Kishino, N.D. Pain and personality. In B. J. Carducci (Editor-in-Chief) & J. S. Mio & R. E. Riggio (Vol. Eds), The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of personality and individual differences: Vol. IV. Clinical, applied, and cross-cultural research. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, in press.

18. Gatchel, R.J., Ray, C.T., Kishino, N.D. & Brindle, A. The Biopsychosocial Model. In E.A. Klonoff (Ed.), Volume IV: Special Issues in Health Psychology. New York: Wiley, in press.

19. Salas, E. , Kishino, N.D., Dersh, J. & Gatchel, R.J. Psychological Disorders and Chronic Pain: Are These Cause-and-Effect Relationships? In D.C. Turk & R.J. Gatchel (Eds.), Psychological Approaches to Pain Management: A Practitioner’s Handbook 3rd Edition, in the press

20. Kishino, N.D., Mayer, T.G., Gatchel, R.J., Parris, M.M., Anderson C., Gusti, L. & Mooney, V. Quantification of Lumbar Function, Part IV: Isometric and Isokinetic Lifting Stimulation in Normal Subjects and Low Back Dysfunction Patients. Spine, 1985, 10, 921- 927.

21. Mayer, T.G., Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D., Keeley, J. Capra, P., Mayer, H., Barnett, J. & Mooney, V. Objective Assessment of Spine Function Following Industrial Injury: A Prospective Study with Comparison Group and One-year Follow-up. Spine, 1985, 10, 482-492. –Winner of the 1985 Volvo Award in Clinical Science Competition for Research in Low-Back Pain, International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine.

22. Mayer, T.G., Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D., Keeley, J., Mayer, H. & Mooney, V. A. Prospective Short-Term Impact Study of Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Utilizing Novel Objective Functional Measurements. Pain, 1986, 25, 53-68.

23. Mayer, T.G., Gatchel , R.J., Mayer , H., Kishino, N.D., Keeley , & Mooney, V . A. Prospective Two-Year Study of Functional Restoration in Industrial Low Back Injury. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1987, 258, 1763-1767


24. Mayer, T.G., Barnes, D., Kishino, N.D., Nichols, G., Gatchel, R.J. Mayer, H. & Mooney, V. Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation, Part I: A Standardized Protocol and Normative Database. Spine, 1988, 13, 993-997.

25. Mayer, T.G., Barnes, D., Nichols, G., Kishino, N.D., Coval, K., Piel, B., & Gatchel, R.J. Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation, Part II: A Comparison with Isokinetic Lifting in a Disabled Chronic Low Back Pain Industrial Population. Spine, 1988, 13, 998-1002.

26. Kishino, N.D., Polatin, P.B. & Gatchel, R.J. Postoperative and Nonoperative Spinal Pain Syndromes. California Workers’ Compensation Enquirer, April,1999, pp. 28-29.

27. Kishino, N.D., Polatin, P.B., Gatchel, R.J. & Haider, T.T. Functional Restoration Therapy for Postoperative and Nonoperative Spinal Pain Syndrome. California Workers’ Compensation Enquirer, 16(9): 28-31., 1999.

28. Leeman, G., Polatin, P.B, Gatchel, R.J. & Kishino, N.D. Managing Secondary Gain in Patients with Pain-Associated Disability: A Clinical Perspective. Journal of Workers Compensation, 2000, 9, 25-44.

29. Polatin, P.B., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Chronic Disabling Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Effective Rehabilitation Available! Journal of Workers Compensation. 2001, 10:426-430.

30. Gatchel, R.J., Adams, L., Polatin, P.B. & Kishino, N.D. Secondary Loss and Painassociated Disability: Theoretical Overview and Treatment Implications. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 2002, 12: 99-110.

31. Robinson, R.C., Kishino, N.D., Matheson, L., Woods, S., Hoffman, K., Unterberg, J., Pearson, C., Adams, L. & Gatchel, R.J. Improvement in Post-Operative and Non- Operative Spinal Patients on a Self-Report Measure of Disability: The Spinal Function Sort (SFS). Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 2004, 13(2): 107-13.

32. Dersh, J., Gatchel, R.J. & Kishino, N.D. Beyond Secondary Gain: The Role of Tertiary Gain in Pain Disability. Practical Pain Management. 2005, 5(6): 13-28.

33. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Robinson, R. The Role of the MMPI-2 in the Assessment of Chronic Pain. Practical Pain Management, 2006. 6: 34-41.

34. Gatchel, R.J., Howard, K.J. & Kishino, N.D. The Biopsychosocial Approach to Pain Management. Practical Pain Management, 8: 28-39, 2008.

35. Theodore, B.R., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Biopsychosocial Factors and Perpetuate Chronic Pain, Impairment and Disability. Psychological Injury and Law, 91: 919-927, 2009.

36. Worzer, W.E., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Losses in Chronic Pain Patients. Psychological Injury and Law, 2: 215-224, 2009.

37. Howard, K.J., Kishino, N.D., Johnston, V.J., Worzer, W.E. & Gatchel, R.J. Malingering and Pain: Is this a Major Problem in the Medicolegal Setting? Psychological Injury and Law, 3: 203-211, 2010.


38. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Minotti, D.E. The Three Major Components of Behavior Used for Assisting Pain: Problems Faced when there is Discordance among the Three. Psychological Injury and Law, 3: 212-219, 2010.

39. Neblett, R., Howard, K.J., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Fibromyalgia: An Overview and Treatment Options. Practical Pain Management, 12(5): 21-26, 2012.

40. Asih, S., Hartzell, M.H., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Differentiating between Insomnia and Depression in Chronic Pain Treatment. Practical Pain Management, 15: 43-50, 2015

41. Gatchel, R.J., Neblett, R., Kishino, N.D. & Ray, C.T. Fear-Avoidance Beliefs and Chronic Pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 46 (2): 38-43, 2016.

42. Hartzell, M.M., Dougall, A.L., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Utility of Pain Drawings Rated for Non-Organic Pain in Chronic Low Back Pain Populations: A Qualitative Systematic Review. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 21 (3): 162-187, 2016.

43. Bevers, K., Watts, L., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. The Biopsychosocial Model of the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Pain. US Neurology. 12(2): 98-104, 2016, https://doi.org/10.17925/USN.2016.12.02.98.

44. Gatchel, R.J. & Kishino, N.D. Visible/Invisible Traumas and Chronic Pain. The Pain Practitioner, 27(2): 18-21, 2017

45. Licciardone, J., Worzer, W.E., Hartzell, M.H., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. An Overview of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) for Assessing Chronic Low Back Pain Patients. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 22 (2), 2017, DOI: 10.1111/jabr.12057

46. Noe, C.E., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Centers of Excellence in Pain Management: Past, Present and Future Trends. Practical Pain Management, 17 (6): 22-29, 2017.

47. Hulla, R., Coryell, A., Jones, Salas, E., Kishino, N.D. & Gatchel, R.J. Pain, Sleep and Suicide. Practical Pain Management, 17 (9): 24-30, 2017.

48. Gatchel, R.J., Kishino, N.D. & Neblett, R. Beware of Central Sensitization! EC Anaesthesia, 4.6, (2018).